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Manual The Eastern Enlargement of the Eurozone

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Europe after the Eastern Enlargement of the European Union: 2004-2014

These countries desired to consolidate their new democratic systems by binding themselves into the EEC. Equally, the EEC was unsure about which way these countries were heading and wanted to ensure stability along its southern borders. The year , however, saw the first time a territory voted to leave the Community , when Greenland was granted home rule by Denmark and the territory used its new powers and voted to withdraw from the Community See member state territories. Morocco and Turkey applied for membership in Morocco's application was turned down as it was not considered European, while Turkey's application was considered eligible on the basis of the Ankara Association Agreement , but the opinion of the Commission on the possible candidate status was by then negative.

Turkey received candidate status only in and began official membership negotiations in , which are still in progress as of After the s, Europe experienced a downturn which led to leaders launching of the Single European Act which set to create a single market by Austria , Finland and Sweden were neutral in the Cold War so membership of an organisation developing a common foreign and security policy would be incompatible with that.

With the end of the Cold War in , that obstacle was removed, and the desire to pursue membership grew stronger. The Community later became the European Union in by virtue of the Maastricht Treaty , and established standards for new entrants so their suitability could be judged. These Copenhagen criteria stated in that a country must be a democracy , operate a free market , and be willing to adopt the entire body of EU law already agreed upon.

The EU has also preferred these states to integrate via the EEA rather than full membership as the EEC wished to pursue monetary integration and did not wish for another round of enlargement to occupy their attention. However, with the EEA's credibility dented following rejection by businesses and Switzerland, the EU agreed with full membership. This was more readily accepted with the prospect of poorer countries wishing to join; contributions from richer countries would help balance the EU budget.

Uniting East and West

The Norwegian government lost a second national referendum on membership. As with the Mediterranean countries in the s, the countries in Central and Eastern Europe had emerged from dictatorships and wanted to consolidate their democracies. They also wanted to join the project of European integration and ensure they did not fall back into the Russian sphere of influence. However, the EU's desire to accept these countries' membership applications was less than rapid. The collapse of communism came quickly and was not anticipated.

The EU struggled to deal with the sudden reunification of Germany with the addition of its poorer 17 million people and, while keeping its monetary union project on track, it was still at that early stage pointing the EFTA countries in the direction of the EEA rather than full membership. States in Central and Eastern Europe persisted and eventually the above-mentioned issues were cleared.

Although eventually trying to limit the number of members, and after encouragement from the US, the EU pursued talks with ten countries and a change of mind [ clarification needed ] by Cyprus and Malta helped to offset slightly the influx of large poorer member states from Central and Eastern Europe. This was the largest single enlargement in terms of people, and number of countries, though not in terms of GDP. Some countries, such as the UK, immediately opened their job market to the accession states, whereas most others placed temporary restrictions on the rights of work of the citizens of these states to their countries.

These, like the countries joining in , faced a series of restrictions as to their citizens not fully enjoying working rights on the territory of some of the older EU members. Bulgaria and Romania are not yet members of the Schengen area ; however, their citizens can travel visa-free to the other EU countries.

The socio-economic research on the attitudes towards the integration from both hosting and visiting countries has revealed divergent views.

Enlargement - EUROPA | European Union

The analysis shows, there are a number of possible factors of the rationalization and understanding of the practices on what the enlargement has been and should be like. Attitudes of even skeptical citizens, do not discard the possibility on future sustainable enlargements. The years subsequent to the EU accession will lead to extensive dialogues between policy-makers, governments, and European citizens about the path for a constructive development.

The EU's relations with the Western Balkans states were moved from the " External Relations " to the " Enlargement " policy segment in Those states which have not been recognised as candidate countries are considered "potential candidate countries". Croatia joined on 1 July , following ratification of the Accession Treaty by all other EU countries. Albania and the several successor states of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia have all adopted EU integration as an aim of foreign policy.

Article 49 of the Maastricht Treaty as amended says that any European state that respects the "principles of liberty, democracy, respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms, and the rule of law", may apply to join the Union. The Copenhagen European Council set out the conditions for EU membership in June in the so-called Copenhagen criteria see Criteria above for details. Turkey applied for membership in The Western Balkans have been prioritised for membership since emerging from war during the breakup of Yugoslavia.

Albania , Macedonia , [24] Montenegro , Serbia , and Turkey are all recognized as official candidates, and the latter three are undergoing membership talks. On 6 February , the European Commission published its expansion plan, [70] which covers the six Western Balkan countries. The plan envisages that all six applicants could achieve accession as members of the European Union after In May , Bulgaria—holding the rotating presidency of the Council of the European Union—hosted a summit on the Western Balkans, which aimed to facilitate accession by the six, including enhanced regional security cooperation and regional connectivity.

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It was noteworthy that the Summit referred to 'partners' rather than states: Spain , Slovakia , Cyprus , Romania , and Greece. Each at its own pace, with its own specificities and under different conditions, but the direction is clear and is one " [73]. Not all enlargement negotiations have ended with the accession of a new member state. Norway completed membership negotiations twice, in and , but both times membership was rejected in a referendum.


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Switzerland applied for membership in May but subsequently froze its application, [74] [75] and formally withdrew it in In however, Iceland's newly elected government announced that it may seek to begin talks with the EU on possible future membership once again. New elections were called in October , leading to a new left—right coalition government in November Following the elections, all the parties of the governing coalition oppose EU membership, along with two of the opposition parties, summing up to at least two-thirds of the MPs.

Additionally, for more than eight years every single opinion poll published in Iceland has had a solid majority against joining the EU. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Council of the EU Presidency. European Court of Justice. Foreign relations of EU Member States. Resumed following another election of a new government in September European Union 1 Jan. Joined the EU on 1 May Joined the EU on 1 Jan. Joined the EU on 1 July Future enlargement of the European Union. Potential candidates which have submitted a membership application.

Potential candidates which have not submitted a membership application. European Union portal Europe portal. Those two Treaties shall have the same legal value. The Union shall replace and succeed the European Community ". We must maintain a credible enlargement perspective for the Western Balkans". The Netherlands EU Presidency Retrieved 15 February Retrieved 28 June The History of the European Union. Retrieved 2 August Retrieved 15 June Archived from the original on 11 January Geary, An Inconvenient Wait: Archived from the original on 28 October Retrieved 28 October Hetzelfde gebeurde in toen Aruba van eilandgebied van de Nederlandse Antillen een apart Land binnen het Koninkrijk werd.

Frank Schimmelfennig, Eastern enlargement and differentiated Integration

Dutch Ministry of Foreign Affairs — Grondwettelijke aspecten: Aruba, Curacao and Sint Maarten are autonomous countries in the Kingdom of Netherlands, and remain overseas territories of the European Union. Bonaire, St Eustatius and Saba, also known as the BES islands , are special municipalities of the Netherlands, and remained legally overseas territories. Archived from the original on 16 September Retrieved 23 August The Republic of Kosovo unilaterally declared independence on 17 February , but Serbia continues to claim it as part of its own sovereign territory.


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  • The two governments began to normalise relations in , as part of the Brussels Agreement. Kosovo has received formal recognition as an independent state from out of United Nations member states. Retrieved 18 May European Union External Action Service. Archived from the original on 28 April Archived from the original on Enlargement and partners of the European Union. Current membership Criteria Withdrawal. Pre —57 —72 —93 — Since Eurosphere Intergovernmentalism Multi-speed Neofunctionalism Optimum currency area Supranational union.

    International reach and expansion of the European Union. Territorial evolution of the world. Employment and social affairs. Enlargement Foreign and security policy. Climate action Energy Environment. Find legislation Find case-law. Get involved in European policy making. Documents, reports and data Official documents Reports, studies and booklets Statistics and opinion polls Open data. Teachers Publishers and writers Language and terminology Slide presentations.

    Social networks and the EU. Contact the web team. Spreading prosperity and democracy Over the past 50 years, widening EU membership has promoted economic growth and strengthened democratic forces in countries emerging from dictatorship. Several other West European countries joined after Full list of countries with year of joining Who can join?

    But specifically, a country can only join if it meets all the membership criteria: How does it work? The process has 3 stages all subject to approval by all existing EU countries: Which countries might join next?

    Enlargement of the eurozone

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